More than 300 pilots gathered outside Leinster House in Dublin on Monday morning to protest the Irish government’s air travel restrictions. We spoke to the Vice-President of the Irish Airlines Pilots’ Association (IAPA) to find out why.

The Irish government is set to announce its plan to restart aviation on Friday. The airline industry, however, has concerns that the plan will not be sufficient to save their industry.

What are they demanding?

Protestors believe that Ireland’s air travel restrictions are an outlier in the EU. All non-essential international travel is currently prohibited in the country, with passengers from risk areas required to undertake a 14-day hotel quarantine on arrival.

The EU recently announced its Digital Green Certificate which will allow vaccinated people to travel within the EU. An implementation period of up to six weeks was granted to Member States and the Irish aviation industry is concerned that the government will take the full period, leaving them no time to plan internally.

IAPA Vice-President Alan Brereton is asking for the government to extend the certificate to US citizens too. His association also demands the immediate reinstatement of the Common Travel Area with the United Kingdom.

Ireland and the United Kingdom have a long-standing agreement that allows citizens from both countries to move freely between each nation. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, however, this freedom of movement has been heavily curtailed.

This relationship has posed health risks for both nations too. When the UK Covid-variant struck, many people in the UK flew to Belfast, Northern Ireland (which is part of the United Kingdom) and drove to the Republic of Ireland from there, amid much controversy.

Brereton believes that this loophole creates an “arbitrary artificial barrier.” He wants the Irish government to harmonize with the UK’s aviation strategy, which is considerably more lax. This coordination should be immediately implemented, he says.

Now that those terms have expired, airlines have begun furloughing thousands of workers and are cutting additional routes — service reductions that are hitting smaller cities especially hard. Talks for additional aid have dragged on for months without a deal.

American Airlines, for example, initially suspended service to 11 cities from Oct. 7 to Nov. 3 and has recently extended those suspensions until the end of November. CEO Doug Parker told CNBC’s “Squawk Alley” on Oct. 8 that Americans would be forced to make cuts to other markets if the government fails to provide additional aid to the industry.

For six of those airports, American is the only carrier operating scheduled flights. Many of them are hundreds of miles from the nearest airport or major city.

Service cuts at airports like these are more than an inconvenience. Airports, even small ones, provide a wide range of jobs, everything from maintenance and food service to taxi driving and construction. Some airports may get by with private and chartered flights, but scheduled airline flights provide a valuable stream of visitors and revenue.

Congress approved $10 billion for U.S. airports in the March CARES Act, and the industry is seeking $15 billion more. Airports Council International, an industry group, expects U.S. commercial airports to lose an additional $23 billion in revenue this year. Airports generate revenue from airlines through fees for landing aircraft and gate rentals that airlines pay and from a host of other sources like retail and parking, all of which are suffering because of the pandemic’s toll on air travel.

Unless they remember their ground school training, new pilots may be surprised at how their aircraft reacts as they engage their ailerons to make a turn. They may be caught wondering why if they were making a turn to the right, the aircraft suddenly seemed to have a mind of its own and pivoted to the left first. Sounds like it is time for a refresher on the topic of adverse yaw.

What is adverse yaw?

Adverse yaw is the tendency of a fixed-wing aircraft to yaw in the opposite direction as you roll into a banked turn. If you roll the plane to the right, it will have an automatic tendency to make an unintended yawing motion to the left and vice versa.
This adverse yaw tendency exists to varying degrees on all fixed-wing aircraft although it is less pronounced on planes with shorter wings and those flying at higher speeds.

What causes adverse yaw?

Adverse yaw is caused by a lift and drag differential between your two wings. To initiate a right banking turn, you need to roll the plane to the right. This is done by raising the right aileron and lowering the left. Raising an aileron decreases both the lift and drag it generates. In our example, raising your right aileron will cause the right-wing to dip, initiating your right roll.

In contrast, lowering an aileron generates more lift and correspondingly more induced drag. The reason a lowered aileron generates more lift is that it alters the chord line and increases the angle of attack. At a higher angle of attack, more lift is generated. When we lower our left aileron, it will result in the left-wing lifting.

If the drag decrease on one wing was perfectly balanced by the drag increase on the other, the plane would simply roll without yawing, however, in real life, there is a drag differential between the two wings. A drag differential occurs because the raised aileron is deflecting into lower pressure airflow and the lowered aileron is deflecting into higher pressure airflow. If the amount of deflection is the same, the drag on the lowered aileron will be greater than it is on the higher aileron. This causes the plane to yaw in the direction of the lowered aileron which is the opposite direction of your roll.

How does aileron design impact adverse yaw?

The two main types of ailerons in use today were both purposefully designed with countering and minimizing adverse yaw in mind. Frise and differential aileron designs can be used solo or combined so their benefits work in a tandem hybrid configuration.

Since the adverse yaw is caused by a drag differential between the up and the down aileron, a frise aileron is designed to create more drag on the up aileron. This helps balance the higher degree of drag experienced by the lowered aileron. The increased drag is achieved by setting the aileron hinge point backward. When the aileron is raised, part of it protrudes lower than the bottom of the wing. The air hits this protrusion and generates extra drag.

On a differential aileron design, adverse yaw is decreased through limiting the aileron’s downward range of motion compared to its upward range. When one aileron is fully raised and the other is fully lowered, the raised aileron will move up further than the lowered aileron goes down. By decreasing the range of motion of the lowered aileron, the amount of generated drag is also reduced so it more closely matches the drag of the raised aileron. This decreases the amount of drag differential and thus the severity of the adverse yaw.

One day after United Airlines announced it will offer COVID-19 testing for Hawaii-bound passengers departing from San Francisco. Hawaiian Airlines announced it will also provide the service to passengers in the Bay Area and Los Angeles.

In a Friday press release, Hawaiian said services will be in place by Oct. 15. Hawaii will begins allowing out-of-state visitors to bypass its mandatory 14-day quarantine by presenting a negative PCR test for COVID-19 taken within 72 hours of travel.
Hawaiian Airlines passengers who avail themselves of the offer can use drive-through services at Worksite Labs locations near LAX and SFO. They can opt to pay $90 to get their results within 36 hours or $150 for same-day results. Its Droplet Digital PCR shallow nasal swab tests meet Hawaii’s testing requirements.

“As Hawaii’s leading airline, it is critical to ensure that access to testing does not impede travel to Hawaii, for visitors or our kama‘āina (residents).”Avi Mannis, senior vice president of marketing at Hawaiian Airlines, said in the press release. “Our testing option will offer Los Angeles and Bay Area travelers superior value and we look forward to expanding the program and bringing additional choices to more of our gateway cities as we welcome guests back with our industry-leading Hawaiian hospitality, while keeping our community safe. We’re grateful to the state of Hawaii for its partnership in developing the pre-travel testing program.”

The COVID-19 crisis and ensuing economic downturn has led to significant challenges in the global aerospace industry. Rapid reduction in demand driven by travel restrictions has airlines grappling with how to conduct business. In a recent article for The Air Current, Courtney Miller highlights an interesting development in the commercial aviation industry that has emerged in light of the pandemic.

While the early months of 2020 have proved challenging for some regional carriers, the crisis brought on by COVID-19 paradoxically has left the segment – particularly independent regional’s – in a position of relative strength.

Among other topics, Miller explores some of the near and medium-term potential impacts of COVID-19. This includes how airlines’ pursuit of the breadth of service through off-balance-sheet options might bring continued relative stability for independent regional’s.

Not long ago, the biggest concern the aviation industry had was whether Airbus or Boeing could produce enough aircraft’s to meet demand.

After an unprecedented set of events with an industry that seemed to have no bounds, aviation and the aerospace industry has become a perfect failure. Since the global pandemic emerged, we have seen a big amount of fleet shutdowns, layoffs, and order postponements or cancellations.

Amid fear and panic, we must take a deep breath and remember that this industry has survived many major challenges: spikes in oil prices; the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001; and the global financial crisis of 2008-09. Each time, aviation has recovered and strengthened, resuming its trend of improving faster than global economic growth.

Of course, there are lessons to be learned from this crisis, and getting back to normal simply won’t be that easy. Many companies will seek to reduce costs.

For example, numerous planes are being stored due to the lack of people to travel. Former Delta Air Lines executive and now IATA’s head of operational cost management, Chris Markou, said at the Cirium webinar that OEMs have been working with airlines to find efficient ways to service aircraft’s on the ground. Finding ways to keeping them safe and saving man hours. “They are tackling tasks on calendar time and looking for opportunities to combine tasks.”

So as we go through this as an industry together, we must realize that it is not about politics or competitive advantage. It’s about helping our essential industry survive this tragedy.

Let’s remember in the current state of uncertainty, one thing is certain… We will fly again! PartsBase will continue to provide cost-effective technology to support your business and meet your every demand.

Whilst there are a growing number of technological solutions, it is essential that they are cost effective and conform to global implementation standards in order to benefit the aviation community.​ IATA provides guidance and recommendations on various infrastructure requirements for air navigation services.

​User Requirements for Air Traffic Services (URATs)

The IATA User Requirements for Air Traffic Services (URATs) is designed to act as a reference point for airlines and ANSPs when determining airline infrastructure requirements and capabilities for air navigation services. The document aims to complement the ICAO Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP) whilst succinctly stating IATA’s positions on the various communication, navigation and surveillance technologies.

Any technology will need to fulfil the following requirements prior to actual funding or implementation:

  •  Enable a direct and measurable operational and/or safety improvement that is required for that specific service volume and identified in collaboration with airlines operating through that specific airspace;
  •  Follow a proper consultation process with the airlines and airspace users and involve airlines collaboratively at the planning and deployment stages;
  •  Be aligned with the ICAO GANP;
  •  Be supported by a positive cost-benefit analysis during which the airlines were able to validate the benefits that off-set the costs; and
  •  Follow ICAO principles for user charges

Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B)

IATA views ADS-B based on the 1090 Extended Squitter (ES) data link as the most desirable form of surveillance. Surveillance based primarily on ADS-B should be used, whenever operationally feasible, as the next generation replacement to radar.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

GNSS represents a transition from conventional Ground-Based Navigation Aids to Satellite-Based Navigation Aids, aiming to mitigate many limitations faced by the use of radio signals transmitted from ground. It is the preferred navigation technology supporting better flight trajectory and airspace capacity.​

Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)

PBN is a global set of area navigation standards, defined by ICAO, based on navigation performance and functionality required for the proposed operation. Implementation of PBN is considered a global air navigation priority aiming to enhance safety and efficiency of flight operations and air traffic management. PBN concept encompasses two types of navigation specifications:​

  • RNAV Specification – Navigation specification based on area navigation that does not include the requirement for on-board performance monitoring and alerting, e.g. RNAV 5, RNAV 2 and RNAV 1.
  • RNP Specification – Navigation specification based on area navigation that requires on-board performance monitoring and alerting, e.g. RNP 4, RNP 2 and RNP APCH.

The Settlement with Orders (SwO) program introduces a streamlined and efficient settlement solution based on orders. It builds on the capabilities delivered by NDC and ONE Order which enable the accounting functions using the airlines’ order management systems. Visit the Air Tech Zone for further information and Standard download.

Travel settlement made easy

SwO is a framework for the settlement of agreed orders between partners. The SwO standard consists of a lean XML data exchange standard and of a process agreed by the industry.

Based on a pre-agreement between two parties, the settlement process can be enabled by a simple claim requiring minimal data. The partners are informed about the settlement process results based on the same data exchange.

In a first phase, the SwO standard will be applied to the settlement between Carriers and Sellers, using the current agency program framework.


Runway excursions remain one of the top challenges to aviation, with serious impacts in terms of safety and cost. A key consideration is to ensure effective braking, particularly when the runway surface conditions have deteriorated.The assessment and reporting of Runway Surface Conditions (RSC) are being addressed by ICAO through the implementation of a revised Global Reporting Format (GRF). This methodology has at its core a Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM) that enables the harmonized assessment and reporting of runway surface conditions; and flight crew assessment of take-off and landing performance based upon the reported runway surface conditions.

This methodology is for harmonized and global implementation, will be mandated from 5 November 2020.

IATA-ICAO e-learning course

In a joint effort between IATA and ICAO, this course aims to assist flight crew to understand and use the new Runway Condition reporting requirements as outlined in ICAO Circular 355 (Assessment, Measurement and Reporting of Runway Surface Conditions) and ICAO Doc 10064 (Aeroplane Performance Manual [APM]). Get to know fundamental changes in the new reporting system related to the introduction of runway condition code (RWYCC) and enable flight crew assessment of take-off and landing performance based upon the reported runway surface condition

What you will learn

Upon completing this course you will have the skills to:

  • Explain the need and fundamental requirements for a harmonized GRF for Runway Condition Assessment and Reporting
  • Summarize the end-to-end process of a Runway Condition Assessment and Reporting
  • Describe the factors which require adjustments to braking and acceleration performance to account for runway conditions
  • Use a Runway Condition Report (RCR) to assess takeoff and landing performance

Who should attend

This course is recommended for:

  • Flight crew
  • Airline operational staff
  • Dispatchers

Course content

  • Runway condition report (RCR), Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM) and Runway Condition Code (RWYCC);
  • The impact of different runway conditions on flight planning and operations
  • Runway contaminants
  • Airline activities in the end-to-end process of a Runway Condition Assessment
  • Pilot-observed Runway Condition Reports
  • Conditions for Downgrading/Upgrading a report
  • Takeoff and landing performances

Find out more about this course


Drones offer new forms of air freight, such as last mile air transport, humanitarian deliveries, disaster relief, transport of temperature sensitive medicine and food, and many more.

IATA’s objective is to address the opportunities for the air freight industry to integrate and embrace this new branch of air cargo through the development of necessary standards and tools, education initiatives and the collaboration with industry partners.


The Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) industry is moving at a fast pace in multiple directions: low altitude, high altitude, recreational and commercial.

In the civil world, they can be used for media and entertainment, fire-fighting, precision agriculture, humanitarian, and multiple other applications that require cheap and extensive aerial surveillance (border patrol, weather monitoring, nuclear security, hurricane tracking, law enforcement).

Drones for the airline industry

While much of the focus of drones to date has been on military applications and consumer toys potentially able to endanger aircraft, the future of drones to support the airline industry is promising, as they offer opportunities to gain efficiencies, reduce costs and increase speed.

Business opportunities exist for our industry in three main areas:

  •  Airport and ground operations: ground for safety checks (aircraft, runway…) and maintenance, for airport perimeter monitoring, bird and wildlife control, warehouse operations such as sorting and inventory
  •  Transport of goods: transport of parcels, general and special cargo in urban space as well as rural and remote locations
  •  Transport of passengers: drones for tomorrow’s travel by air, including urban mobility

IATA’s focus

The industry needs to react quickly to address challenges and capture the opportunities offered by this new branch of civil aviation.

At IATA, a high priority is placed on the development of standards and recommended practices that will enable the safe and efficient operations of drones into the established aviation infrastructure. Our focus is therefore on the following three areas of work:

  • Safety & security: find out more on the Drones and safety page
  •  Air Traffic Management (ATM)
  •  Integrated operations: airport & ground operations, cargo, passenger